学术英语写作积累_compositional report_天使不会不快乐的博客-程序员秘密

技术标签: 英语写作  学术写作  

学术失信 academic dishonesty

Multiple Submissions
Facilitating Academic Dishonesty
Coercion Regarding Grading or evaluation of housework
Unauthorized collaboration

抄袭 plagiarism

word-for-word plagiarism
paraphrasing plagiarism

学术写作 academic writing

features: objectivity, formality and precision


使用非个人主观描述(避免 it is believed/argued that),
不要使用会soften文章内容的词,如could might may 等,
使用精确的qualifying adverbs,如 some several,a minority of


避免非正式词语如 a lot of, pretty good guy stuff
避免contractions形式如 don’t, I’d, it’s
single verbs 一般比phrasal verbs 更正式,如increase 比 go up 好
避免分裂不定式 split infinitives,如 不要to sharply rise
避免unspecified的分类,如少用and so on, etc., that kind of thing
not any 变为 no,not much 变为 less或few


vague verbs possible alternatives
get obtain, receive, retrieve, become
keep continue, retain, maintain, store
do complete, undertake, act
make construct, create, complete
put insert, place, position, propose


Reports is for describing things,which is divided into three kinds as following:

  1. Classifying reports sub-classify a number of phenomena with respect to a given set of criteria.
  2. Descriptive reports classify a phenomenon and then describe its features.
  3. Compositional reports describe the components of an entity.

Classifying reports

Producers in ecosystems are typically photosynthetic organisms, such as plants, algae and cyanobacteria. These organisms build organic matter (food from simple inorganic substances by photosynthesis).
Consumers in an ecosystem obtain their energy in the form of chemical energy present in their ‘food’. All consumers depend directly or indirectly on producers for their supply of chemical energy.
Organisms that eat the organic matter of producers or their products (seeds, fruits) are called primary consumers, such as leaf-eating koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), and nectar-eating honey possums (Tarsipes rostratus). Organisms that eat primary consumers are known as secondary consumers. Wedge-tailed eagles that prey on wallabies are secondary consumers.
Some organisms consume the organic matter of secondary consumers and are labeled tertiary consumers. Ghost bats (Macroderma gigas) capture a variety of prey, including small mammals.

There are two types/ kinds/ classes/ categories/ sorts/ varieties of A: B and C.
A consists of/comprises/can be divided into two classes: B and C.
A maybe classified according to/ on the basis of/ depending on amount of …

Descriptive reports

Australia is home to 25 of the world’s 30 monitor lizard species. In Australia, monitor lizards are called goannas. Goannas have flattish bodies, long tails and strong jaws. They are the only lizards with for ked tongues, like a snake. Their necks are long and may have loose folds of skin beneath them. Their legs are long and strong, with sharp claws on their feet. Many goannas have stripes, spots and other markings that help to camouflage them. The largest species can grow to more than two meters in length. All goannas are daytime hunters. They run, climb and swim well. Goannas hunt small mammals, birds and other reptiles. They also eat dead animals. Smaller goannas eat insects, spiders and worms. Male goannas fight with each other in the breeding season. Females lay between two and twelve eggs.

  1. Position:
    A is adjacent to/ alongside/ below/ beyond facing/ (diagonally)/ parallel to/ underneath/ on the right of/ on the left of/ near/ close to/ touching/ behind/ in front of/ under/ on top of/ above/ below/ level with/ diagonally above /vertically below B.
    A is between/ equidistant from B and C.

  2. Function
    The function/ purpose/ aim/ objective of the thermometer/ tripod is to measure the temperature/hold the beaker.
    The thermometer/ tripod is used for measuring the temperature/ holding the beaker.

Compositional reports

Transport systems are need inside the body of all living things. In humans the blood or circulatory system carries digested food and other materials around the body. The blood contains 20 billion tiny cells floating in a liquid called plasma. The cells are of two different kinds red cells which carry oxygen and white cells which attack germs. Platelets which are microscopic discs, help in blood clotting.
Red blood cells are made in bone marrow. They live for about 100 days and then they are destroyed by the liver. The bone marrow makes new cells to replace the destroyed cells. White blood cells protect the body against toxins and infections.
The chemicals into which food has been broken-down are carried to all the body’s cells in the blood. Blood also carries waste away from the cells.
The blood moves through a series of tubes called blood vessels. The tubes could be compared with the road network of a country. However there are no head-on crashes as the tubes are strictly one-way.
Blood is pumped around the body by the heart. Tubes called arteries carry blood away from the heart. Except for the artery to the lungs they carry bright red blood, rich in oxygen. Tubes called veins bring blood back to the heart. Except for the vein from the lungs they carry dark red blood short of oxygen. The smallest arteries and veins are linked by tiny tubes called capillaries. Through their fine walls, oxygen and the chemicals from food are delivered to the cells all over the body, and waste products are collected.


  1. Properties:
    X is light/ tough/ soft/ elastic/ malleable/ flexible/ soluble/ a good conductor of electricity/heat/ corrosion resistant/ combustible/ transparent/ smooth/ heavy/ brittle/ hard/ plastic/ ductile/ rigid/ insoluble/ a bad conductor of electricity/ not corrosion resistant/ non-combustible/ opaque/ rough
  2. shape
    X is square/ round/ rectangular/ triangular/ semi-circular/ irregular in shape.
    X is shaped like a square/ triangle/ hexagon/ octagon.
    X is cubical/ cylindrical/ pyramidal/ spherical/ tubular/ spiral/ hemispherical/ conical in shape.
    X is diamond-shaped/ kidney-shaped/ U-shaped/ star-shaped/ bell-shaped.


Explanations are concerned with explaining how processes happen. The typical structure of explanations is to start by specifying the Phenomenon to be explained, followed by the implication sequence that explains it, the Explanation stage.
Stages: Phenomenon(thesis statement) + Explanation(topic sentence+Evidence+concluding sentence)
Explanation genres are of four general types:

  1. Sequential explanation consists of a simple sequence of causes and effects.It is typically constructed as a series of events, in which an obligatory causal relation is implied between each event.
  2. Factorial explanation involves multiple causes. In scientific factorial explanations, events may be explained by two or more contributing factors.
  3. Consequential explanation involves multiple effects.
    结果型说明:一个现象造成了多个结果A->B, C…, D。文章先描述现象A,综述A所造成的结果,然后分别具体介绍,最后进行总结。
  4. Conditional explanation: effects may vary depending on variable conditions.
    条件型说明:在不同的条件下会有不同的结果,A->a, B->b,…,D->d。文章先描述整体背景,然后逐个介绍条件A下会有a结果,最后再进行总结。

Writing steps

When writing an explanation, follow the steps below and use the checklist to self-check if your essay is properly written:

  1. Understand the causal relationship.
    Sometimes the connection between cause and effect is clear, but often it is difficult to determine the exact relationship between the two. Often it is not necessary, or even possible, to find the exact cause or effect of an event. So, you can claim a few causes or effects to be the primary/main causes or effects.
  2. Write the thesis statement, stating whether you intend to discuss effects, causes or both.
    The thesis statement is typically placed at the end of the introduction after some brief background information about the topic.
  3. Research and organize your ideas, provide evidence to support your claim.
    Explain each cause or effect fully and completely with the full use of evidence, such as scientific studies, expert testimony, and statistics.
  4. Use the most appropriate transitional phrases.
    To blend details smoothly in cause and effect essays, use transitional words and phrases, such as
    For causes: because; due to; one cause is…, another is; since; for
    For Effects: consequently; as a result; thus; resulted in; one result is…, another is; therefore
  5. Write the conclusion (optional).
    The conclusion should wrap up the explanation and reinforce the thesis statement, so that the reader clearly understands the causal relationship.

Checklist for an explanation

  1. The causes and/or effects are clearly identified
  2. The right genre is used (factorial, sequential, consequential, conditional)
  3. Appropriate transitional words are used
  4. There is a clear and appropriate thesis statement

Sequential Explanation

Studies show that college graduates earn more money than those without a post-secondary degree. As a result, applications to colleges have risen significantly in recent years. Because of the increasing demand for degrees, the cost of tuition has increased. Higher tuition has led to increased borrowing and, consequently, a mountainous amount of student-loan debt.

  1. Verbs expressing causality
    may cause/ can lead to/ can result in/ can give rise to/ stems from/ caused by/ resulting from
  2. Nouns expressing causality
    likely causes/ A consequence of/ an important factor in/ have an influence on/ Another reason why
  3. Prepositional phrases expressing causality
    owing to/ because of/ as a result of
  4. Sentence connectors expressing causality
    Therefore,/ Consequently,/ Because of this,/ As a result (of this),
  5. Adverbial phrases expressing causality
    thus/ thereby

Factorial Explanation

How can plant life grow so well in such dry, hot and infertile places? The mulga tree likes long droughts – if it is too wet mulga trees will not grow.
The shape of the mulga tree is the key to it surviving dry times. The branches of the mulga fan out from the bottom – like a huge half moon. The branching leaves and stem catch the rain and it trickles down to the soil. This traps more rainfall than if the tree grew straight up. The mulga catches more water than a gum tree. The water is stored in the soil to be used by the tree during the next drought.
Even the mulga’s leaves help it to survive the drought. They are a silvery grey colour. The sun’s rays bounce off the leaves helping the plant to stay cool.
Also the mulga tree makes its own food by dropping thousands of leaves.


  1. expressing causality
    As a consequence of X, it appears that winds alone are not the causative factor of…….
    Due to X and Y inflowing surface water becomes more dense as it …….
    X and Y are important driving factors of Z.
    The mixing of X and Y exerts a powerful effect upon Z through ……
  2. Possible cause and effect relationships:
    This suggests a weak link may exist between X and Y.
    Stomach cancer in many cases may be associated with certain bacterial infections.
    A high consumption of seafood could be associated with infertility.
    There is some evidence that X may affect Y.

Consequential Explanation

A consequential explanation is a type of writing which presents two or more consequences of an event.
We start by describing the event we are interested in the Phenomenon stage. We then, in the explanation stage, present the different outcomes that have resulted from the event. These factors would be grouped in a logical way, analyzed and supported.
Its main purpose is to tell the reader that you are about to discuss the effects of a state of affairs. (It is also ok to provide a background, before stating the phenomenon.)
This is the body of the essay in which you argue that the effects you present are better than other options. Pay attention to the following when wring a consequential explanation:
Strong effects: Do not spend much time on obvious or predictable effects. Your essay should offer interesting effects that the reader would not expect when hearing the topic. If you fail to come up with interesting effects, try to compensate by giving some unique supporting examples or evidence. Be sure to present the effects in a logical order.
Topic sentences: Each effect should constitute the topic sentence for one of the body paragraphs. In general, three or more reasons should be given to show why the reader should accept the effect. These will be the evidence or support for that topic sentence.
Thesis: These topic sentences should be summarized in one sentence at the end of the first paragraph to form the phenomenon. The statement serves as a shortened outline throughout the rest of the paper.
b It is important that you present evidence to convince the reader your effects are the best options. The effects do not have to be proven conclusively, but enough evidence should be given to make them seem possible. Statistics, case histories, historical evidence, examples, description, expert opinion, quotes, and scenarios can all be good evidence.

Conditional Explanation

Buoyancy and Density
If the object is completely submerged it displaces its own volume of fluid. The weight of displaced fluid, and therefore the upthrust, will depend on the density of the fluid.
If the density of the fluid is less than the average density of the object, the weight of the displaced fluid will be less than the weight of the object and the object will sink.
If, on the other hand, the density of the fluid is greater than the average density of the object, the weight of the displace fluid will therefore exceed the weight of the object. The net upward force will then cause the object to rise to the surface where it will float.


expositon: is arguing for a point of view(Thesis+Arguments+Reiteration)
discussion: is disscussing two or more points of view(Issue+Sides+Resolution)


single side for debating topics: thesis statement + reasons explantion with topic sentences+summary

Family Responsibility: A Dangerous Policy
Certain politicians often say they want “small government” and “individual responsibility”—in other words, they feel that people should be responsible for themselves and not rely on the government to solve their problems. Applying this idea to family policies can have significant negative consequences. It will lead to a variety of social problems, not only for the elderly themselves, but also for their families who would have to look after them.
The elderly themselves have a lot to lose through small-government policies. If no support services are provided, they may have to move in with their adult children. Not only will this make them feel uncomfortable about being a burden to their families, but they may also have to move away from their homes, friends and communities. In many cases, adult children have had to move to another area for work reasons, thus the grandparents may have to move a considerable distance. Relationships that may have developed over a lifetime would then be lost. Such circumstances can lead to serious problems such as depression, as well as a loss of a sense of independence.
Families with children would also be disadvantages by a reduction in government services for the elderly. Spending time to look after elderly family members will have an adverse effect on the family’s free time, their lifestyle and possibly even their work. Further, families with children will face even greater difficulties if governments withdraw subsidized child care in the name of “small government”. Firstly, without affordable child care, at least one parent would find it hard to go to work. In some cases, the grandparent may be able to help look after the children, but if the grandparent has moved in because he or she is finding it difficult to look after themselves, this may not be possible. Secondly, the resultant loss of income will lead to loss of opportunities for the whole family, including the children.
In conclusion, government support is clearly essential to ensure that families have opportunities and maintain an appropriate standard of living. It would be an unfortunate situation if having young children or elderly relatives caused a financial burden. That situation is clearly best avoided. Thus, government subsidies for social services that benefit the young, elderly and others not able to look after themselves, should be preserved.


Multi-sided for debateing topics : Preview of issue(thesis) + different sides of opinions(topic sentence and supporting details) + resolution
Over the years, mankind has recognized the need for personal and social freedom, and this is perhaps one of the most important social advancements ever made. However, whether more freedom has led to increased personal happiness is highly debatable. Although many people believe greater freedom means more happiness, others would argue that it has led to increased social disorder and personal dissatisfaction.
Firstly, it is true that people are now more at liberty to choose how to live their lives. For example, in the Western world at least, the choice of where to live, what career to pursue and which religion to follow has never been greater. In addition to this people have more leisure time to enjoy a wider range of recreational activities. To be able to live the way one wants is believed by some to be the prerequisite for happiness. This increased freedom, however, can cause people to take things for granted and expect too much from life. As an example of this, the greater choice of material goods available has resulted in people quickly growing bored with their possessions. Consequently, no sooner have they acquired something new than they tire of it. Their happiness in material goods and entertainment is short-lived, and boredom and frustration soon send them looking for fresh distractions.
Secondly, social and moral attitudes have become less rigid. This has allowed for a greater variety of lifestyles and more freedom in human relations. An example is that pupils and teachers now treat each other as equals, and parent-child relationships are now much more relaxed. Such freedom brings happiness to many parties, especially children. Nevertheless, some people believe that this increase in freedom has resulted in the escalation of social problems. They argue that the current lack of discipline has given rise to a breakdown in the traditional family and the decay in educational standards as well as the rise in juvenile delinquency. Thus, it may be said that society is becoming more and more dangerous because of the very fact that people are more open-minded than they were in the past.
To conclude, there is evidence both to support and refute the view that greater freedom leads to greater happiness. On the one hand, freedom means people have more opportunities to raise their standard of living. On the other hand, the many problems of modern society are a sign that, although people may be free, they are not necessarily happier.

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